Zoloft contains Sertraline and belongs to the group of antidepressants. According to the mechanism of action, it belongs to the group of selective serotonin reuptake. The mechanism of action of this drug is associated with the inhibition of the reuptake of serotonin in the cells of the nervous system and in blood platelets. The drug has very little effect on such important mediators as norepinephrine and dopamine, which makes it stand out from the entire group of antidepressants. An important factor is that the drug does not cause drug dependence. This drug is produced in tablets, where the dosage ranges from 25, 50, and 100 mg. The tablets are white and have an oblong shape.
These are all conditions that occur with the long-term depressed mood, turning into a chronic course. The main syndromes are the following: depression, obsessive states and neurosis, panic attacks and post-traumatic stress disorder, anthropophobia, as well as for the treatment of emotional lability in women in the premenstrual period. The drug is allowed for both adults and children over 6 years of age.
Sertraline has a cumulative effect as it binds to plasma proteins. This drug has a "first pass effect" in the liver. What does it mean? This means that the drugs that are absorbed from the intestines are carried by the blood throughout the body after they pass through the liver. The drug is immediately converted into metabolites due to the work of liver enzymes.
The maximum concentration is observed on average after 4-9 hours with daily intake for 2 weeks.
The average half-life in men and women is 22–36 hours. The final metabolites are excreted in the feces and urine in equal amounts. Metabolites are safe for the kidneys, as a result of which there are no restrictions in renal failure, with the exception of terminal stages. For children, due to low body weight, especially at the age of 6-12 years, the drug should be reduced in the initial dosage. This avoids excessive sertraline plasma concentrations.
In various studies, it was found that patients who used drugs from the same group as Sertraline had periods with suicidal thoughts or even actions. The risk is higher for those who have already tried to commit suicide before. Therefore, the use of the drug is strictly prescribed by a doctor and carefully monitored until a stable remission is established.
The use of any monoamine oxidase inhibitors is unacceptable. After using drugs from this group, at least 2 weeks should pass before taking Zoloft. It is necessary to stop using the drug at least 1 week before starting therapy with monoamine oxidase inhibitors.
Sertraline increases the concentration of pimozide by 35%. No changes were observed on electrocardiography, but their use together is contraindicated.
It is also contraindicated to use ethanol or any other drugs that depress the central nervous system, as well as having an effect on serotonergic transmission.
Take the drug once a day. For more frequent use, consult your doctor. Take Zoloft in the morning or in the evening. Note that the dosage is individual for each condition. The starting dose is 25 mg per day, depending on the indication. The dose should be increased gradually, after a week of use. It is not recommended to take more than 50 mg per day. The maximum daily dose is 200 mg. Contact your healthcare professional to select your individual dosage. The partial effect of the treatment appears within 7 days, the full effect after 2-4 weeks.
For children, therapy begins with a minimum dosage of 25 mg per day, taking into account the child's body weight. Increasing gradually if ineffective, at intervals of 7 days.
In old age, the risk of developing hyponatremia increases. Very low sodium levels are life-threatening. This can cause seizures, fainting, shortness of breath, and even death. Dosages depend on body weight, the lower the body weight, the smaller the dose.
In women in a state of menopause, the use of the drug is carried out with caution, since the drug increases the likelihood of developing fractures of an already existing climacteric osteochondrosis.
The use of the drug is dangerous in organic diseases of the brain, which are associated with mental retardation, severe weight loss, epilepsy and terminal stages of hepatic and renal failure.
An allergic reaction is accompanied by the following reactions: rash, hives, itching, any kind of edema of the skin or mucous membranes. The skin becomes red, swollen, flakes, blisters and fever may appear, as well as, breathing problems. The most dangerous and rare side effect is Stevens-Johnson syndrome, called epidermal necrolysis.A decrease in sodium in the blood is characterized by impaired memory and concentration, headache, confusion, seizures, weakness and imbalance.
When the liver is dysfunctional, the following symptoms appear: dark urine, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, discolored feces, yellowness of the skin or sclera of the eyes.In case of any side effects, consult a doctor immediately.
There are no studies on the safe use of the drug among pregnant and lactating women.
Sertraline passes into breast milk, and therefore the use of the drug is prohibited during lactation. In case of using the drug, you must stop breastfeeding immediately.
Do not forget about such a rare but deadly complication as the development of serotonin syndrome. This syndrome occurs with the simultaneous use of several antidepressants that can cause the accumulation of serotonin in the synaptic cleft, as well as use in doses significantly exceeding therapeutic ones.
Sirotonin syndrome begins to manifest itself more often with symptoms of an upset gastrointestinal tract and is accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. To all of the above, the influence of the autonomic nervous system can be added, such as tachycardia, increased sweating, dizziness, psychomotor agitation, myoclonus and hyperreflexia.
It should be noted that an overdose with the use of one drug Sertraline, even at doses higher than therapeutic, is extremely rare. However, when Zoloft is used together with other drugs or alcohol, severe poisoning may occur, leading to coma and even death.
There are no specific antidotes. The main goal is intensive supportive therapy, as well as constant monitoring of vital functions. The airway must be kept clear. Absorbents are more effective than gastric lavage. Sertraline has a large volume of distribution, so blood transfusion, dialysis, hemoperfusion, increased urine output may be ineffective.
Biotransformation of the drug occurs in the liver. According to numerous studies, with repeated administration of sertraline in patients with serious liver disease, an increase in the half-life of the drug was observed. Therefore, the use is permissible with caution. When prescribing Zoloft, it is necessary to use reduced doses or increase the interval between taking the drug.
Correction is not required, since 98% of the drug is biotransformed into metabolites that are safe for the kidneys.
The drug is used with caution with drugs that have the ability to change the function of platelets, as well as in patients with a history of hemorrhagic diseases.
Transient hyponatremia may occur during treatment with sertraline. This occurs more often in elderly patients, as well as when taking diuretics. This process is associated with the syndrome of inappropriate secretion of Antidiuretic hormone (ADH), which is also called Vasopressin.
With the development of symptomatic hyponatremia, it is necessary to immediately stop taking the drug and prescribe a therapy that will adequately correct the blood sodium level. Signs and symptoms of hyponatremia include headache, impaired concentration, memory impairment, weakness, and unsteadiness that can lead to falls. In more severe cases, it can lead to the development of fainting, hallucinations, muscle cramps, respiratory arrest and death.
Depression can be reactive or endogenous. Reactive depression means a response to an external cause, this includes serious prolonged stress, difficult life situations or the death of a person or pet. Endogenous depression is most commonly associated with an imbalance in hormones.
The nervous system is dependent on hormones and neurotransmitters. The main mediators include serotonin, norepinephrine, and dopamine. Their lack causes the development of depressive conditions and obsessive-compulsive disorders. Such disorders include postpartum depression.
These mediators have an impact not only on a person's mood. For example, serotonin affects locomotor activity and is involved in the regulation of vascular tone. This explains the reason why many patients with depressive disorders refuse to get out of bed, eat, and go to the toilet. It is simply difficult for them to perform even basic physical activity.
If you are faced with unexplained bouts of anxiety, anxiety, a sense of indifference about what is happening around, you should not neglect this. Almost no one can understand what is happening to them. Many people even deny the actual picture out of fear of facing stigmatization in society. Only mild forms of the disease can be tracked independently. In moderate and severe cases, people cannot do anything, since any action seems meaningless to them. In such cases, support from your environment and timely provision of medical assistance are very important.
Particular attention should be paid to adolescents who are characterized by hormonal changes. It is very important to form a trusting relationship with your children so that if a problem arises, they can turn to you first. In no case should you discount or underestimate problems. A parent should always support his child and not put events in life more important than life itself.
Bad mood is familiar to everyone. Decreased mood for 2 weeks or more is already a symptom of depression. There are many stereotypes in society regarding this issue. Most often you can hear: "this is nonsense, pull yourself together, where is your will" and so on. All this ultimately affects the duration of a person's stay in depression, not receiving timely treatment, and the disease only acquires a chronic course.
In general, during depression, a person's health decreases. Everyone knows that physiological processes in the body are interconnected with mental state. Psychosomatics can arise, as well as exacerbate existing chronic diseases.
Depression causes decreased memory and attention and affects cognitive function. Numerous studies have shown that depression that lasts for a long time leads to organic changes in the brain.
A person's personality changes - inferences change, a person begins to see everything pessimistically, experiences self-doubt. The long course of such a disease makes these negative attitudes a part of our personality. As a result of this, the character changes and the person closes in himself, becoming passive. From this follows the most dangerous consequence, namely, the suicidal risk. A person ceases to feel the desire to live.
A person with a labile nervous system is advised to engage in meditation and breathing exercises. And if it is impossible to solve any problems, visit a psychologist on your own.Since the basis for the appearance of depression is stress, hormonal disruptions, then you need to start with their elimination.Reconsider your daily routine: proper 8-hour sleep, physical activity, rest, pleasant leisure with your close environment.
Zoloft is a prescription drug. If you notice any of the above disorders in yourself, then you should not postpone solving the problem. You must immediately contact a specialist. Self-help methods of struggle can help get rid of mild forms of depressive conditions, but more serious cases have serious consequences.